How the internet works~~~~~

The internet is a series of connections on a web, for example a spider web is vast and has many connections. This is why the siites are called websites, because they are points on the web. Like a web the spider’s design is detailed and intricate, blocking certain connections from others. This is the same way that certain software programs, sites, and coding does not allow certain attachments or other hacks from going into it. The internet was developed as a tangible physical system made to move information. This information was meant to connect the globe, to connect past, present, and future together. This is how we can research the past, view news of the present, and search the production of future inventions. We have social media to connect the masses with communication, photos, videos, and voice recording. We have the global entertainment center in one small portable device that is linked to everything and anything posted on the web. The internet was made to span the globe, and this is only possible with fiber-optic wires. These wires carry the connections underground and underseas to reach the rest of the globe. it does this by sending bits across the frame. a bit is any pair of opposites such as On/Off, Yes/No, Hot/Cold,etc. These bits are what allows for things to be created throught the internet. The bits are sent in binary code using a set of ones and zeroes, such as 101101001001001. 8 bits equal 1 BYTE, 1000 BYTES EQUALS1 KILO BYTE, 1000 KILO BYTES EQUALS 1 MEGA BYTE. MP3’s for example are3-4 MEGA BYTES. Each 1 bit is 1 second counted. These are sent across and are measured in bitrate and bandwidth. Bandwidth is the transmission capacity measured by bit rate. Bitrate is the number of bits per second a system can transmit. The time it take for a bit to travel from sender and receiver is called latency. Bitrate is shown as # of bits per second. For example 8Mbps, is explained as 8 million bits per second. The fiber optic cable reflects light bouncing and this is how the internet can move at the speed of light. Radio is created by frequency. The waves vary to send the bits across, this is done wirelessly, and needs to connect. For this to work they connect wifi, and other spots where the frequency is directed to. Wifi is connected to transfer bits through frequency connected through cables. The creators of the internet are Vint Lerf, and Bob Kahn who worked on creating the internet network protocol, IP. The networks connect to transfer the data. The protocol is set for communicating devices to adapt to the protocol set, making bit transfer faster and efficient. The Internet Protocol is an address, the IP address, every internet connected device has an individual and unique address. This number is assigned to the device by network connected to. The IP address sends like a letter to other devices, and includes its origin, and location to transfer to. The address is composed of numbers, which are bits, in various sets separated by a period. They are often 32 bits long, 8 bits for each part of the address on IPV4. The bits are separated by country/network- region network- subnetwork- device. Longer IP addresses are needed due to the growth of the internet and has changed to IPV6 with a total of 126 bits per address. There are 340 undecillion unique addresses in the world and counting. The data is then sent out to a DNS, a domain name system, that associates url witht he address sent. The DNS servers are connected in a distributed hierarchy. They work to move th ebits to find the data you look for by lending each other the files asked for and then returning them back to you. This process is a system of connections between the informations tored and locations were it is stored. When there is a hack this can  mean a break in the line returning to location. To avoid this the DNS works using complex and different route systems to transfer, dodging viruses and hacks. Then when the info is sent back to your device, it does an automatic check of the files before presenting them to you. If the check is not clear, the files are resent until they are perfect. This explains constant buffering in videos.

 

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